Wind Power| Kingfisher Wind Project, Oklahoma

The Kingfisher Wind Project will be built in central Oklahoma and is expected to be in commercial operation by the end of 2015. The project will be capable of producing up to 298MW of energy and this will be able to supply power for around 100,000 homes each year.

Kingfisher County Farmland

The project will be sited in Canadian and Kingfisher Counties. It is estimated that the project will cost $452 million.

In January 2015 Kingfisher Wind was acquired from Apex Clean Energy for an undisclosed sum by First Reserve. First Reserve is a global private equity and infrastructure investment firm that is exclusively focused on energy. Apex Clean Energy will remain on as construction and asset managers.

The other partner in the project is Vestas Wind Systems who will be providing 149 V100-2.0 MW turbines to the project.

The turbines will be constructed on agricultural land where it is expected that long term leases will be offered to landowners. It is expected that the addition of the turbines on this agricultural land will have no significant impact on agricultural activities.

The payments to landowners will receive annual lease payments that will continue over the projected 25-year lifespan of the wind farm.

Power Purchase Agreement

The Kingfisher Wind Project has been given a boost with the news that the Florida Public Service Commission has given approval for a wind power purchase agreement by Gulf Power with Morgan Stanley Capital Group. This is a 20-year agreement in which a 178MW portion of the electricity produced by the project will be sold to Gulf Power.

According to Jeff Rogers, External Communications manager for Gulf Power the power that is produced from the Kingfisher Wind project will be around 5 per cent of the energy that the company will provide.

This project will be the fifth renewable energy project that Gulf Power has negotiated deals with. The other projects include the Perdido Landfill Gas-to-Energy Facility which has been producing electricity since 2010 and three solar energy projects that are expected to begin construction in February 2016.

“Kingfisher Wind will help Gulf Power add renewable energy that makes environmental and economic sense,” said Jeff Rogers. “Smart renewables, like Kingfisher Wind, are cost effective for customers.”

Jobs Creation

The project will provide 165 local jobs during the wind farm construction phase. When the project goes into operation it will provide 12 full-time jobs for the operation and maintenance of the wind turbines.

Plasma Gasification: A Solution For Reducing MSW


The challenge of reducing municipal solid waste (MSW) which has been filling landfills around the world for years may have yielded a new solution. Plasma gasification can process carbon-based waste into renewable energy and fuels and can do so without harming the environment.

This type of technology has been used for years to treat hazardous waste, turning it into non-hazardous slag.

There is the promise of a new type of biomass power plant. It will use a waste to energy conversion process using plasma gasification. We will examine both the technology and science surrounding plasma gasification as well as existing and planned projects that use the process.

Plasma gasification is a process that can convert waste to energy into usable products such as electricity, ethanol, vitrified glass and other usable products. It goes way beyond the traditional incinerator and is far cleaner than other gasification processes.

What Is Plasma Gasification?

This is a process that converts matter, either organic or non-organic, to its basic molecular structure. It performs the process in an oxygen-free environment. There is no combustion of the waste in the way an incinerator works.

Benefits of Plasma GasificationOrganic waste is converted into a synthesis gas (syngas) which contains the chemical and heat energy from the waste. Inorganic waste is converted into an inert vitrified glass slag.

The syngas consists primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide which are the basic building blocks of salable items. The syngas can also be used in gas turbines or reciprocating engines to produce electricity or it can be combusted to create steam to be used in a steam turbine-generator.

The Plasma Gasification Waste to Energy Process

  1. Waste is conveyed from a storage area to entry in the plasma cupola, entering via an airlock chamber.
  2. Plasma torches at the bottom of the chamber operate at temperatures of around 10,000 degrees F to convert the waste into either a fuel gas or liquid slag.
  3. The process takes place in an oxygen-deprived environment so there is no combustion. A synthetic fuel gas called syngas is created. The syngas leaves the cupola at the top while the slag runs out the bottom into a pool of water. The slag is converted into granular pieces that are completely inert and can be used as aggregate or shaped into paving bricks.
  4. The syngas leaves the cupola at about 2,000 degrees F. and immediately is sent to the heat recovery boiler. The temperature is reduced to around 400 degrees F. while making steam that is sent to the power plant to produce electrical energy in a steam turbine-drive electrical generator.
  5. When the syngas is cooled it is cleaned and scrubbed to remove contaminants. This makes the syngas ready to be used in the power plant.
  6. Compressors pull the syngas from the plasma cupola and compress it for use in a gas turbine. When the syngas has gone through the gas turbine and the electrical generator to produce electricity.

Plasma Gasification v Incineration

Plasma Gasification v IncinerationThe process of gasification is far superior to incineration and results in an improved environmental impact and energy performance. The way in which incinerators operate is that they burn at high temperatures with the heat generated used to run a boiler and steam turbine so that electricity is produced.

Pollutants such as nitrous oxides and dioxins are produced through the incineration process that involves complex chemical reactions that bind oxygen to molecules. These pollutants are ejected through a smokestack and, unless exhaust scrubbers are in place to clean the gases, directly into the atmosphere.

Gasification takes place as a low-oxygen process which means that fewer oxides are formed. Scrubbers are used as part of the process of producing clean gas and form part of the essential gasification process. With the scrubbers in place the emissions levels are extremely low.

Another by-product of the incineration process is incinerator ash which is highly toxic. This ash is generally disposed of in landfills although one of the main uses for plasma torches in the past has been to melt toxic incinerator ash into a safe slag.

Non-organic materials that are treated in the gasification process is melted down to a glasslike slag. It is a safe material because it forms in a tightly bound molecular structure. This slag looks like the glassy stones displayed below:

Plasma Gasification Slag

Both gasification and incineration have the capability of producing electricity, however the gasification process is far more efficient. Whereas incineration uses the heat to power a steam turbine a gasification system uses gas turbines that can be configured in state-of-the-art power producing integrated gasification combined cycle mode.

How Plasma Gasification Works

Plasma Gasification ProcessBefore the gasification process starts the waste must be processed to separate out the recyclable material from the rest. The reason for doing this is that recyclables such as plastics, paper and metals can be sold for a price higher than the fuel that would be produced.

A pre-treatment shreds solid waste into smaller uniform pieces so that it can be fed into the gasifier. The waste is passed into an airlock that prevents gases from escaping into the atmosphere. The plasma gasifier is an insulated air-tight container and the plasma torches are located at the bottom and they are used to create enough heat to gasify the waste feed.

The plasma arc is not applied directly to the waste material which gives the process the classification of plasma assisted gasification. The operating temperatures are significantly higher than a typical flame temperature that is associated with combustion.

The process takes place in an oxygen-starved environment so that a combustible syngas can be produced. This is produced rather than a non-combustible flue gas which is produced during combustion.

Carbon based waste become volatized and turned into synthetic gas (syngas, which is a mixture of H2, CO and CO2). The inorganic materials are vitrified and melted down to be turned into a form of slag which is an obsidian like substance.

When the syngas leaves the gasifier chamber it is put through a series of filtration systems and a water cooling process. All particulate matter is filtered out to clean the gas. The water-cooling process prevents the formation of pollutants such as dioxins and furans.

Following this purifying process the gas goes through a series of scrubbers to remove acids, chlorides, fluorides, sulphates, phosphates, sodium and calcium.

A turbine connected to the process can be used to generate electricity. This electricity may either be used to power the plant or can be sent out as a clean source of renewable energy for use by the public.

More information about the process of plasma gasification can be found on the Phoenix Energy website.

Benefits of Plasma Gasification

Plasma gasification offers a number of important benefits:

  • The greatest amount of energy from waste is unlocked.
  • Mixing feedstock such as municipal solid waste (MSW), biomass, tires and hazardous waste is possible.
  • Methane is not generated by the process.
  • Unlike incineration, no leaching bottom ash or flying ash is produced.
  • Reduction of landfill.
  • Syngas is produced. The syngas may be used as fuel to produce energy or can be processed further to create chemicals, fertilizers or transportation fuel.

Lets break down each of these benefits and look at them a little closer.

Greatest amount of energy from waste is unlocked

Out of all the various types of waste to energy technologies that are in use, plasma gasification produces the most efficient conversion rates.

The high temperatures that are used in the gasifier break apart the chemical bonds of the feedstock and converts them to synthesis gas (syngas). The primary components of the syngas are hydrogen and carbon monoxide and these are the basic building blocks of fertilizers, chemicals, a form of natural gas and liquid biogas that might be used to power transport.

In addition to all of this the syngas can be used to power gas turbines to produce electricity or it can be combusted to produce steam that can be used in a steam turbine-generator.

Mixing Feedstock is possible

Although it is a more efficient process if the waste material is sorted with recyclables and non-organic materials removed first, it is possible to feed the gasifier with all types of waste together. This allows the operators to optimize the tipping fee because they can accept a wider range of feedstock.

Methane Is Not Generated

Methane is one of the most damaging greenhouse gases that are produced and is particularly prevalent as a by-product of landfill. The water-cooling and scrubbing process involved with plasma gasification eliminates the release of methane.

No Ash Creation

A toxic product that comes from incineration is ash, whether it’s bottom ash that leaches toxins into the ground or flying ash that spreads particulates in the atmosphere. The solid waste product that comes from the gasification process is the glass-like slag that is inert.

Reduction of Landfill

This is the most obvious benefit that comes out of the process. Large amounts of solid waste that would be dumped into the ground is no being converted down to its smallest possible components in the form of gas and slag where it will be reused. A landfill site could potentially be completely removed through the operation of a gasification plant.

Syngas Is Produced

Synthetic gas is just one of the usable by-products from a plasma gasification plant. It is a fuel source that can be used to power the facility full time or the gas can be sold to external parties. The creation of renewable energy electricity offers real benefits to the local community.

Not Everything Should Be Gasified

Although a plasma gasification plant has the ability to convert just about any material into something that has a downstream use, in economic terms it is more worthwhile to separate out recyclables. Plastic, metal and paper products can be extracted and sold. As an example, metals can be melted down to a slag using gasification but the process is less efficient and the metal itself has value as a recycled material.

One of the key steps in treating MSW properly before it goes into the gasifier is that it has first gone through a sorting and processing stage. This will separate out any recyclables which can be sold separately. The treatment process will then dry the waste and shred it into uniformly small pieces. Any inorganic materials that have no value as fuel may also be removed.

Plasma Gasification Cost

It has been estimated that a gasification facility with a capacity to consume 750 tons per day would cost around $US150 million. This would be an appropriate sized facility for a small city.

Costs could be recouped year on year through revenues from tipping fees, sale of recyclable material, electricity sales, sales of slag and sulphur.

A plasma gasification plant could get to the point where it is more cost efficient to take garbage to the plasma gasification plant where energy is produced than to simply dump it into a landfill.

Plasma Gasification Waste To Energy Facilities

Listed below are just a few of the plasma gasification facilities that are currently in operation around the world. It is estimated that there are around 300 facilities currently in operation in some form that uses plasma gasification to treat waste.

Location Materials
North America
Jonquiere, Canada Aluminum dross 50 1991
Ottawa, Canada MSW 85 2007
Alpoca, W. Virginia Ammunition 10 2003
Anniston, Alabama Catalytic converters 24 1985
Hawthorne, Nevada Munitions 10 2006
Honolulu, Hawaii Medical waste 1 2001
Madison, Pennsylvania Biomass,
construction waste
18 2009
Richland, Washington Hazardous waste 4 2002
U.S. Navy. Shipboard waste 7 2004
U.S. Army Chemical agents 10 2004
Bordeaux, France Ash from MSW 10 1998
Morcenx, France Asbestos 22 2001
Bergen, Norway Tannery Waste 15 2001
Landskrona, Sweden Fly Ash 200 1983
Utashinai, Japan MSW/ASR 300 2002
Nagpur, India Hazardous Waste 72 2011
Pune, India Hazardous Waste 72 2009
Kinura, Japan MSW Ash 50 1995
Shimonoseki MSW Ash 41 2002
Kakogawa, Japan MSW Ash 30 2003
Mihama-Mikata, Japan MSW/Sewage sludge 28 2002
Imizu, Japan MSW Ash 12 2002
Maizuru, Japan MSW Ash 6 2003
Iizuka, Japan Industrial waste 10 2004
Osaka, Japan PCBs 4 2006
Taipei, Taiwan Medical/battery
4 2005

Plasma gasification is continuing to grow both in the acceptance of the wider community that it is a process that has a positive effect on the environment and from a business aspect where it is a profitable solution. As well as the gasification plants that are already in operation there are also up to 70 plants in the process of being constructed.

The amount of waste that is being treated each day should be looked upon as material that is not being added to landfill. For this reason alone there is a lot to like about plasma gasification as a waste management method.

For more information about Plasma Gasification

Application of Plasma Gasification Technology in Waste to Energy Challenges and Opportunities

Janajreh I et al. Plasma Gasification Process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification.(2012)

Thermal Plasma Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)


Biomas | Chowchilla Power Plant, California

The Chowchilla Biomass Power Plant is located in Madera County, Central California and is owned by the Akeida Capital Management Group. In early 2013 the management and operations of the project were awarded to Deltaway Operations Services under a 10 year contract.

Chowchilla Biomass Power Plant

The Chowchilla facility was first built in the 1980s and was designed to be fuelled by a mix of agricultural and urban construction waste. The facility has an operating capacity of 12.5 MW.

The power plant had been suffering from maintenance deferrals that were affecting the plant’s performance. It was acquired in 2011 by Akeida after the previous owner Global Ampersand experienced operational and financial difficulties. By awarding the management contract to Deltaway it is working towards optimizing the plant processes and reducing operating costs.

In 2011 the performance of the plant reached such a low level that it was fined $328,000 for violations of federal Clean Air Act and rules for the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution District. This was related to excess emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides.

Plant Improvements Highlighted

All of the problems that were related to the plant now appear to have been overcome and operations are now proceeding with greater efficiency.

By October 2014 Deltaway reported that the plant had demonstrated significant improvements in critical areas. Availability of the plant had increased from 85 per cent to 92 per cent and capacity had increased from 79 per cent to 89 per cent.

Biomass | Blackburn Meadows Biomass Power Plant

The Blackburn Meadows biomass power plant in Sheffield, northern England has started generating electricity. The facility is owned and operated by E.ON UK and is the third biomass facility to be owned by the company in the UK.

Blackburn Meadows BiomassThe project cost 120 pounds to bring to the fully commissioned stage and it has a generating capacity of 30 MW. This is sufficient power to provide electricity to 40,000 homes.

The power plant takes in locally sourced recycled wood waste to convert to electricity. The facility will serve to save around 80,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions each year.

Construction of the power plant began in 2011 with around 3,400 people involved in the construction process. Now that the facility is in operation it has created around 30 full-time jobs to keep it operational. The site is located around 5.5km north east of the city centre of Sheffield.

Luke Ellis, E.ON’s Blackburn Meadows Project Manager, said: “After several years of hard work by the project team and our contractors it is a great feeling to be finally generating power.

“The next and final stage of the project is the reliability and performance testing phase which is due to be completed this summer.”

The project has been successful in adding job opportunities to the area as well as providing investment options too. The fact that the power plant is producing electricity through renewable methods is another positive factor in its favour.

Wind Power | Hawaii Wind Farm Recommissioned to Power Water Wells

There are plans to recommission the Lalamilo Wind Farm in Hawaii. The wind farm was a 2.7 MW project that was powered by 120 Jacobs turbines and was decommissioned in 2010 in order to replace the outdated turbines.

To get an idea of what the old wind farm used to look like, we have provided an image of the site. It’s not immediately obvious by looking at the picture below but a number of the turbines had fallen off their towers or were destroyed before the wind farm was decommissioned.

Old Lalamilo Wind Farm

The proposed upgraded wind farm will sit on the old South Kohala site and will consist of five Vestas 660 kW wind turbine generators. This will give the new version of the wind farm a total generating capacity of 3.3 MW.

The power that is to be generated by the wind farm will be used to supply power to eight wells in the Lalamilo-Parker well system. This solution is part of a Department of Water Supply plan.

In all, the wells have a combined capacity of 5 million gallons a day which is used from the Mauna Lani Resort to Kawaihae.

The Lalamilo Wind Co. was awarded the $13 million project by the Department of Water Supply. The benefit to the department is that it will cut the power bill for the wells in half over the next 20 years.

It is expected that the project will be commissioned and start providing electricity by the end of 2015 or early 2016. From there, its lifespan has been estimated to be around 40 years.

There is an EA process that will take 60 to 90 days. The land, which comprises 126 acres, will be leased by the project and this is to be acquired from the state Department of Land and Natural Resources.

There is additional work required to bring the wind farm up to a suitable modern standard with road improvements to made, an updated monitoring and control system plus a new 13-kilvolt overhead electrical transmission line.

The project details are open for public comment until July 23, 2014.

Florida Gulf Stream Tidal Energy Potential Studied

A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between Swedish ocean and tidal current technology developer Minesto and Florida Atlantic University (FAU) to study the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of its technology in Florida.

This study will involve the construction of demonstration plants for commercial use in Florida. The fact that FAU is the home of the Southwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC) was partially the reason why it was chosen for the project.

The technology that is used by Minesto is a tidal and ocean power plant called Deep Green and when it is deployed it gives the appearance of an underwater kite. Deep Green can generate electricity from low velocity currents, something of a breakthrough in marine energy.

Deep Green Tidal Device

SNMREC is a federally-designated US research and testing center that has been created to accelerate the commercial realization of marine energy recovery. It’s primary area of focus is the Gulf Stream. It is a benefit to the partnership through the experience in resource modelling, marine measurements, environmental assessments and regulatory framework that has been undertaken.

According to the US Department of Energy the Gulf Stream can supply nearly 30% of the power consumption in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, which is up to 163TWh electricity.

Deep Green is already undergoing long-term ocean trials in Strangford Lough, Ireland. It produces electricity by a unique principle in which it describes a figure of eight pattern. When moving through this pattern it is able to reach speeds ten times the speed of the water current. It is this action that enables the device to generate electricty in low speed currents.

New England Coast Offshore Wind Leases Announced

There is now more than 742,000 acres of offshore territory off the Massachusetts coast that is available for commercial wind energy leasing after a recent announcement. The announcement was made by Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) Acting Director Walter Cruickshank along with Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick.

This new area that has been opened up is the largest in federal waters and almost doubles the federal offshore acreage that is now available for commercial-scale wind energy projects.

Massachusetts WEA

Image: BOEM (click to enlarge)

“Massachusetts is leading the way toward building a clean and sustainable energy future that creates jobs, cuts carbon pollution and develops domestic clean energy resources,” said Secretary Jewell. “Thanks to Governor Patrick’s vision and leadership, the competitive lease sale in Massachusetts will reflect the extensive and productive input from a number of important stakeholders. This includes interests such as commercial fishing, shipping, cultural, historical, environmental, and local communities to minimize conflicts and bring clarity and certainty to potential wind energy developers.”

The area is called the Massachusetts Wind Energy Area and it is located some 12 miles offshore Massachusetts. From north to south is a distance of 33 nautical miles and from east to west it is around 47 nautical miles. The BOEM plans to auction the Wind Energy Area as four leases.

There have already been five commercial wind energy leases awarded by BOEM off the Atlantic coast. These leases comprise two noncompetitive leases (Cape Wind in Nantucket Sound off Massachusetts and an area off Delaware) and three competitive leases (two offshore Massachusetts-Rhode Island and another offshore Virginia). Around $5.4 million was raised for the competitive leases and they cover an area of about 277,550 acres in federal waters.

Additional competitive auctions are expected to be held by BOEM later in 2014 for Wind Energy Areas offshore Maryland and New Jersey.

The full press release that discusses the announcement can be found on the BOEM website here.

“The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has been working hand in hand with BOEM to foster responsible commercial wind development in federal waters off Massachusetts,” said BOEM Acting Director Cruickshank. “Members of the Massachusetts Renewable Energy Task Force have been great partners in our planning process for the Wind Energy Area and the Proposed Sale Notice.”

The proposed sale notice begins a 60-day public comment period that ends at midnight on August 18. During that period BOEM will also accept application materials from parties interested in bidding on the leases.

Gwynt y Mor Offshore Wind Farm – Foundations Completed

Construction of the Gwynt y Mor Offshore wind farm is underway with the last of the turbine foundations now in place. At a cost of more than £2 billion, the 160 turbine wind farm represents the largest construction project in Europe. When it is completed and commissioned the project will have the capacity to produce 576 MW of electricity.

Gwynt y Mor Offshore Wind Farm DetailsEach of the Siemens SWT-3.6-107 turbines has a 3.6MW rating. They are supported by monopile foundations and each has a diameter of 5 meters and the outer casing is made from steel. they range in length from 50m to 70m in length.

The first power generated from the wind farm was in August 2013 and this was exported to a substation at St Asaph.

When the wind farm is fully commissioned it will be capable of supplying enough electricity to power around 400,000 homes. This roughly equates to a third of the number of households in Wales. It will produce 1,950GWh of clean energy per annum.

The wind farm is sited around 14km off the North Wales coast in Liverpool Bay in the Irish Sea and covers an area of around 79 square kilometres. The depths of the water range from 15m to 30m.

Gwynt y Mor Wind Farm Layout

Image: RWE Innogy (click to enlarge)

The project is owned and is being developed by a joint venture that comprises RWE Innogy (60%), Stadwerke Munchen (30%) and Siemens (10%).

The project will also consist of two offshore substations which will connect to the turbines through 33kV array cables. These substations will transform the energy from 33kV up to 132kV for transmission to a new onshore substation at St Asaph. This substation will also be built by Siemens.

Gwynt y Mor

By April 2014 the foundations of all 160 turbines were completed. The turbine foundations are monopole and transition pieces with the first being installed back in August 2012.

A new long term operations and maintenance complex for the wind farm that will house more than 100 staff is being constructed at the Port of Mostyn, North Wales. This facility will be the base for engineering, technician, management and administrative services throughout the operational lifetime of the wind farm.

Construction of the operations complex is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2014 which will coincide with the planned completion of the construction of the wind farm.

Icebreaker Offshore Pilot Wind Project

A planned offshore wind farm will be built using a turbine design that will combat the problems posed by ice build up in the shallow waters of Lake Erie. The project is called the Icebreaker Offshore Wind Project and will sit 7 miles off the shore near Cleveland.

The Icebreaker project is an 18MW pilot project that is hoped to be the first of a number of projects that will total over 1,000 megawatts of renewable electricity production in the Ohio waters.

Icebreaker Offshore Wind Project DetailsThe project is being developed by Lake Erie Development Corporation (LEEDCo) along with Great Lakes Ohio Wind (GLOW), Cavallo Great Lakes Ohio Wind, Great Lakes Wind Energy LLC and Freshwater Wind LLC.

The Icebreaker Turbines

The plan is to install 6 Siemens SWT-3.0-113 turbines. These turbines are part of an innovative design that will overcome the unique conditions of Lake Erie.

The seabed into which the monopile design will be sunk is composed of soft clay, sand and compacted clay for a depth of 60 feet. In order to get through the soft layer to the shale bedrock underneath the monopole design will be adapted.

In addition, the turbine towers will be given additional stability by adding a friction wheel that will sit on the lake floor. The friction wheel is made of large metal rings that spread the load from the turbine.

Because Lake Erie is prone to freezing the turbine towers are going to have to withstand the force of tons of ice running into them as it moves around on the surface.

The answer to combat this are specially designed ice cones that sit at the surface of the water and break up the ice as it strikes the turbines. During this pilot project there will be sensors placed around the turbine towers to collect data about the effectiveness of the design.

Project Timeline

The planned timeline for the project is to begin construction and installation of the turbines during the spring of 2017. If the project runs to schedule it is hoped that it will be in operation by 2018.

One setback to the project meeting its goals came about in May 2014 when the project failed in securing one of three $47 million 4 year grants that the Department of Energy (DOE) were offering. This funding would have come through the Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Projects (OWATDP) initiative.

Environmental Group Support

There are always concerns about the impact that the introduction of wind turbines will have on the wildlife that inhabit the area. The project has already received letters of support and endorsements from local conservation bodies.

Organisations such as the Sierra Club, Environment Ohio, Ohio Interfaith Power & Light and the Earth Day Coalition have all given their support.

Environmental impact studies conducted by LEEDCo have indicated that a wind farm that is located on-water is far less likely to impact birds. This is because they migrate over shallower portions of the lake.

However the American Bird Conservancy and Black Swamp Bird Observatory have expressed their concerns about the project to the Ohio Power Siting Board.

To this point LEEDCo have consulted extensively with fish and wildlife experts at the Ohio Department of Natural Resources in an effort to ensure all possible adverse effects are diminished or eliminated.

Approval is still to be granted to the project and because it is the first one on the Great Lakes it is sure to come under a great deal more scrutiny. As well as the construction of the 6 turbines the project will also consist of 34.5kV cables that include five kilometres of inter array lines and 12 kilometres of expect cable. These will be connected to a 34.5/69 kV substation at the Cleveland Public Power Lake Road substation.

Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Project

The Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Project is a planned wind farm located 8km off the East Yorkshire coast. The project is expected to cost around £700 million and it will have a total installed capacity of 219 MW and will consist of 73 turbines.

When the project has been completed and is commissioned it will be able to generate enough electricity to power as many as 170,000 homes.

Humber Gateway Wind Project DetailsThe project is being developed and will be owned by E.ON Climate and Renewables. As well as the 73 Vestas V112-3.0 MW turbines the project will also involve onshore and offshore cables. These cables are essential components that will bring the electricity to a substation. From here the power can be fed into the National Grid.

There will be around 30km of cabling running underground onshore. In order to step the electricity up before it joins the grid the power will pass through two substations, one onshore and one offshore.

The site covers an area of around 25 square kilometres with the northern boundary running parallel to existing pipelines that run into Easington.

In February, 2014 the project developer announced that a key milestone in the project was reached with the completion of the first phase foundations being successful.

This included twenty four foundations consisting of a tubular steel monopole that were driven into the seabed. These foundation form the bases for the turbines that will follow. A further 49 foundations are to be installed in the next phase of the project.

Humber Wind Farm Control Facility

Another part of the project that is crucial to its success, the facility that will accommodate the Operations and Management Team has been completed Grimsby Fish Dock. This is a £3 million facility that contains offices, stores and the wind farm control room. It has been built with its own solar array, roof top wind turbines and points to allow electric vehicles to be recharged.

The offshore cabling has been laid and all has gone according to plan. These cables are going to connect the offshore substation to the onshore substation. The onshore substation is still under construction at Salt End.

At this stage the project continues to run to schedule with the planned commissioning in 2015 still expected to be met.